of executive functioning, processing speed, verbal fluency and verbal memory individuals
diagnosed with Depression or Bipolar disorder were found to perform worse than control
subjects (Neurology Reviews, April 2010).
were physically active and used the Mediterranean diet showed a sixty percent
lower risk for Alzheimer’s dementia during a five year period.Consuming a diet high in fruits, vegetables,
legumes, cereal and fish was found to have a positive impact on a study of
1,880 elderly people living in Northern Manhattan, New York. The independent benefits of diet and remaining
physically active were still present after adjustments for age, gender,
ethnicity, genetic risk factors, caloric intake, body mass index, other
diseases, smoking, depression, cognitive and social activities.The diet pattern while not fully explaining
the better health of individuals who adhere to it, likely has some type of positive
impact in combination with other favorable factors, (Neurology Today, September
young stroke patients those younger than 45 years is going up significantly according
to a population study based upon more than one million people over a 12 year
period.The average age of the time of
stroke dropped from 71.3 years in 1993 to 1994 to 70.9 years in 1999 to 68.4 in
2005.Over the same time period, the
percentage of stroke patients younger than 45 years rose from 4.5 percent in
1993/1994 to 5.5 percent in 1999 and 7.3 percent in 2005.Risk factors were identified.Among those age 20 to 44 years, diabetes and
coronary heart disease significantly increased between 1995 and 2005.There were similar although not significant
increases in hypertension and high cholesterol (Cerebrovascular & Critical
Care, March 2010).
In the US,
1.5 to 2.0 million civilians sustained a traumatic brain injury each year.The use of progesterone demonstrated a fifty
percent reduction in mortality in patients treated compared to placebo.Functional outcomes were improved and reduced
disability seen in patients suffering from moderate traumatic brain injury. The earlier patients received the drug the
better the outcome as a means to try to prevent the brain from swelling
immediately after the injury and the cascade of injury that occurs after that
time.Neurosurgery and Trauma, March
anticonvulsant drugs used to treat seizures, bipolar disorder, mania, neuralgia;
migraine and neuropathic pain, often used off label have the increased risk of suicidal
ideation and behaviors.Risk was higher
for younger and older individuals (Neurology Today, June 3, 2010).
the decreasing solvent TCE (Trichloroethylene) has been significantly
associated with an increased risk of PD.Men exposed to this substance had more than six times the rate of PD
than their twins who did not have this exposure.(Neurology Today, June 5 2010).
There is a potential
role for smoking as an inducing factor in thrombus formation.The median age for stroke presentation for
the smoking population was 65.5 and increased to 68 years for ex-smokers and
67.6 for non-smokers.The median age for
TIA presentation was 56.7 for smokers, 72.2 for ex-smokers and 69.1 for non-smokers.Ex-smokers had higher rates of hypertension
and dyslipidemia than current or non-smokers.(Neurology Review, April 2010).
duration when completed on a habitual basis was associated with better
performance on intellectual measures of perceptual reasoning and overall
IQ.There were no significant
associations found for working memory or processing speed IQ factors (Gruber
et. al., 2010, Sleep Medicine,11).
As a result
of CBT patients exhibited significant decreases in the time it took to fall
asleep, decreased wake periods after being asleep, decreased number of
awakenings and increased sleep efficiency or the amount of time spent sleeping
after initial sleep onset.Significant
improvements were seen using behavioral treatment for insomnia in a pain
population resulting in improvement in pain or lessened pain interfering with
daily functioning (Jungquist, et al., 2010, Sleep Medicine, 11).
problems were assessed of children between the ages of five to ten years by
their parents.Reduced sleep as reported
by the parents was found to be predictive of more delinquent behavior and
concentration problems in their children.When parents reported that children were awake after initially falling
asleep, this was also predictive of more pronounced daytime sleepiness. Greater daytime sleepiness was seen as related
to the presence of social problems in the children.Consequently two factors were seen as
affecting the daytime behavior of children, the total sleep time as well as the
amount of time spent awake after initially falling asleep (Velten-Schurian
et.al., 2010, Sleep Medicine, 11).