The question has always been why some children develop autism and others do not; why some children are more vulnerable to insult and their symptoms seem to appear after a high fever or some type of seemingly innocuous incident. Recent research suggests the impact of genetics, a long debated question. A team of researchers in studying the brains of children ages two to fifteen years who were diagnosed with Autism found specific focal patches of abnormal laminar cytoarchitecture and cortical disorganization in the areas that match the symptoms of this population; prefrontal and temporal cortex (controlling executive reasoning and memory function). Key genetic markers were found absent in brain cells in multiple layers of the cortex; 91 percent in the autism samples compared to just 9 percent of the controls. The markers were seen as indicators of pathology. The fact that these defects occurred in patches and in focal areas suggests the in utero nature of autism and genetic predisposition. Discussed in Neurology Today, May 15, 2014; Stoner, R., Chow, ML, Boyle, MO et al, Patches of disorganization in the neocortex of children with autism, New England journal of medicine, 2014; 370;120-219.