Research is beginning to look at why more women than men are diagnosed with dementia. Two thirds of Americans with Alzheimer’s disease are women. Recent research suggests that the gender difference is not the result of women living longer but other factors such as hormonal balance, brain differences and the use of estrogen. Women ages 65 years have a one in six lifetime risk of developing Alzheimer’s compared to men who had a one in eleven risk. One reason is hormonal factors; women who used any type of estrogen therapy within five years after menopause had a thirty percent reduced risk of developing Alzheimer’s compared to women who began estrogen therapy five years or more after menopause (compounds taken later in life were seen as possibly increasing the risk of dementia). Removal of one ovary or the uterus also may increase the risk a woman has to develop dementia. Another area of research focuses on conditions affecting women during pregnancy such as hypertension. Neurology Today, 5-1-2014; Chene, G., Beiser, A., Au R, et al., Gender and incidence of dementia in the Framington Heart Study from mid-adult life, Alzheimers’ Dementia 2014, S1552-5260 (13) 02875-6.